Viscoelasticity

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is used for polymers and rubber materials with a fixed geometry. An oscillation is applied during a frequency sweep while the temperature is increased. The complex modulus, the storage and loss modulus combined, is then determined as a function of frequency and temperature.

Storage Modulus (E’) is a measure of the elasticity of a polymer material. Loss Modulus (E”) is a measure of the capacity for a polymer to convert mechanical energy into heat. Loss Factor, referred to as tan δ, is the ratio of E” to E’.

When sample size or function requires a small volume, a dynamic nanoindentation test analogous to DMA is used to determine E' and E''. Nanoindentation can be used to characterize a larger frequency range than DMA. Less heat can be applied to due the smaller sample size. Tire cross section with storage and loss modulus 3D maps from nanoindentation data

Tire cross-section with storage and loss modulus 3D maps from nanoindentation data


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