Traditional Mechanical Testing
One of the most common mechanical test methods is the tensile test. The tensile test increases a tensile load in one direction, usually until fracture occurs. The load can be applied in tension, compression or shear.
Schematic of a tensile test sample
The resulting stress-strain curve is used to determine mechanical properties like elastic modulus, yield strength and fracture toughness.
Schematic of Hooke's Law
A traditional hardness test measures a material’s resistance to localized plastic deformation. Hardness tests are the most common mechanical test and typically are non-destructive for bulk materials. As dimensions shrink, the residual impression from a hardness test may alter the material properties. Standard microhardness testing is available for small or thin samples.